1. Draw equal groups. Students model equal groups by drawing a circle of each one, then putting the correct number of objects in each group.
2. Skip count. To find the product of 3 X 4, count three fours: 4, 8, 12. Teach students that these numbers are multiples of 4.
3. Draw equal jumps on a number line.
4. Relate multiplication and addition. 3 X 4 = 4 + 4 + 4 + 4
5. Make an array.
6. Use the Commutative Property of Multiplication. If you do not know the product of 3 X 4, perhaps you do know the product of 4 X 3.
7. Use doubles. To find the product of 4 X 4, think of the product of 2 X 4 and double it. To find the product of 6 X 4, think of the product of 3 X 4 and double it, and so on.
8. Use the Distributive Property of Multiplication to break apart larger factors into smaller factors.
5 X 8 can be thought of as (2 X 8) + (3 X 8).
9. Make a bar model.
I have developed several items to help my students master both the concept of multiplication as well as multiplication facts. The products shown below, as well as others, are available in my Teachers Pay Teachers store.